In the self defense world we always stress the importance of awareness and good decision making. With a little preventative maintenance, any individual can reduce their public risk of assault and harassment. Quick fixes like avoiding dangerous locations, cell phone distractions, and public intoxication are great first steps. However, no person is completely safe from danger, no matter how well prepared they are. One perfect example is road rage.
Aggressive driving is commonplace in the modern world, accounting for about 66% of traffic fatalities in the United States1 . Unfortunately, it is also cumulative. Much like the Broken Window Theory, the more people are exposed to aggressive driving, the more they believe it is the norm, and thus, acceptable. Road rage incidences start off as honking, tailgating, verbal abuse, and obscene gestures, but sometimes escalate into situations of physical violence.
Take a look at this video. In it, a young man and his female passenger get into a fender bender with another vehicle. The video begins when the owner of the struck vehicle gets out and starts a confrontation (STRONG LANGUAGE WARNING. To read the full report of this incident, click here.):
Lot’s of anger and potential violence on display! Let’s break a few things down and examine if a fight would have been legally justifiable in this road rage incident. Before we start, understand that laws vary from state to state. I am going to use good general information and opinion, but there is wiggle room depending on your state laws.
Following Proper Accident Protocol
In order to make any conclusive judgement about the need for self defense in this situation, we first have to cover a few basics for accident protocol2. From the context of the video, we can assess that this was a fender bender type of accident. No one was injured and the angry aggressor mentions “rear-ending”. Usually rear ending accidents are the fault of the person in the back as they have control of proper driving distance. Even quick stops are generally considered the responsibility of the rear driver.
In fender benders, it is typical to pull the accident off of the main roadway. Pictures are generally taken as early in the process as possible, even before moving the accident if traffic allows. Serious accidents are not to be moved. In any accident that leave vehicular damage, both parties are expected to wait for police to arrive in order to report the incident and share their side of the story.
Assessing the Need for Self Defense During Road Rage
On to the big question at hand – would a self defense encounter have been warranted in this video?
We can safely assume that the drivers pulled off of the primary roadway and are waiting for police to arrive. The aggressor (large, muscly fellow) gets out of his car in order to berate the defender (thin fellow who perpetrated the fender bender). When the defender notices how angry the aggressor is, he makes the wise decision to stay in his car and lock the doors. The defender is then tempted multiple times by the aggressor to get out and fight. The aggressor goes so far as to kick the defender’s vehicle, bang on it, and pull at the handles.
To determine if getting out and fighting would have been justifiable self defense, we need to assess the aggressor’s IMOP (Intent, Means, Opportunity, and Preclusion). If all of those criteria are met, the defender would likely have the right to fight.
INTENT – Does the aggressor have the will and desire to cause harm? I think we see in this video that he very much does. In fact, he is overrun with intent, causing him to break into a full-on monkey dance.
MEANS – Does the aggressor have the capability to cause harm? The aggressor is young, angry, and filled with a mix of testosterone and muscle. Although he lacks a weapon, I think it is clear that he could do damage. On the flipside, a 70 year old lady throwing a similar tantrum after an accident would not possess the same “means” (although that video would be amazing to see).
OPPORTUNITY – Does the situation allow the aggressor to cause harm? The defender is locked inside of his vehicle. Since the aggressor does not have a tool to break the windows or unlock the vehicle, he does not have the opportunity to cause harm to the defender. The defender would have to willfully exit the vehicle in order to provide an opportunity.
PRECLUSION – Does the defender have the ability to escape from the situation without fighting? We can make a fairly safe assumption that both vehicles in this accident remained operational after the impact. Even though it is common accident protocol to park on the shoulder of the road and wait for police, when the aggressor began his abuse it was well within the power of the defender to drive away.
After assessing IMOP, we can see that “Intent” and “Means” are met, but “Opportunity” and “Preclusion” are not. As a result, getting out and fighting would not have been justifiable self defense on the part of the defender.
Not a Good Example of “How You Should Respond to Road Rage”
Under the video you see the caption: “How you should respond to road rage. Warning: Strong language.” The individual who posted this video was impressed by the self control of the defender who didn’t get goaded into an argument or fight. I was impressed by that also – the aggressor was being obnoxious. However, this is actually a dangerous example of how to handle road rage. The aggressor was in such a state of heightened agitation that, had he gotten his hands on the defender, the beating could have been traumatic and might have extended to the defender’s wife. Furthermore, the defender was lucky that the aggressor did not have a weapon. A gun or any blunt instrument could have granted the aggressor access through the windows of the vehicle, and of course would have lead to serious risks for the defender.
Another problem was the arrival of the aggressor’s friends. Although in this situation they mildly attempted to calm the aggressor down, it could have very easily turned into group violence. You will notice that when the friends arrive, the aggressor goes into an even more frenzied state. This is typical of a full monkey dance as the aggressor feels empowered by the support and hopes to impress his crew with his intensity.
It’s clear that the defender should have drove away as quickly as possible, finding a crowded area or police station while his wife called the police in order to update them on the situation and location. It would have been ill-advised for them to drive directly home or to a secluded location. If, for some reason, the defender’s car did not run in this situation, the wife should have maintained contact with the police while the defender attempted to secure assistance (via phone) from nearby businesses, friends, relatives, etc.
Arguments FOR Self Defense
The following are some arguments that might be made in order to justify violence or fighting. I think some are more valid than others.
The Aggressor Hit the Vehicle – It might be argued that as soon as the aggressor struck or damaged the defender’s vehicle, he opened himself up for counter attack. The justification is that the defender has the right to defend his property. In reality, the damage done to the vehicle did not change “Opportunity” or “Preclusion”. In most U.S. states, feeling threatened wouldn’t have been enough in this scenario. Had the aggressor busted through the window, self defense could have been justified. However, he did not. The defender DOES have the right to sue the aggressor afterward for damages.
The Wife Was Verbally Abused - One big cause of violence between males is the treatment of females. It’s one of those tribal, DNA things we all have as a result of primitive evolution. Even though the aggressor verbally abuses the defender’s female, he does not have the opportunity to hurt her (nor does he directly threaten her). Fighting for the “honor” of his woman would be ego-based for the defender, not self defense.
My Car is My Castle - The castle doctrine in America generally states that a person has the right to defend his/her home, with violence if necessary, when they feel threatened. The castle doctrine varies significantly from state-to-state. For example, Texas and Florida do not require preclusion for home or vehicle – if the defender feels threatened, they may react violently. Other states, like New York and Pennsylvania, require preclusion for both home and vehicle3. The video we are analyzing in this article was filmed in Camp Pendleton, California. In California, the defender is subject to preclusion and could not have used castle laws as a defense for violence4.
Avoiding the Street Justice Temptation
There is one special consideration that I want to make for martial artists. After studying martial arts for awhile, most people have the desire to use their abilities for the betterment of society. This sometimes manifests as an urge to exact “street justice” on criminals and bad people. The aggressor in this video is large, obnoxious, and volatile. In fact, he is a perfect avatar for the kind of bully that causes a lot of men and women to join martial arts in the first place. The temptation to get out and deliver street justice to this young man would have been palpable for many of us.
I would remind martial artists of three things when they are confronted with a situation like this:
1. The ego can land people in trouble. The aggressor in this video is a big, fit Marine who is enraged. It’s wise to assume he would be difficult to beat in a fight. In addition, his large friends are nearby. All in all, this is not a desirable fight. Don’t let emotions cloud proper judgement of the situation.
2. Make sure you understand self defense laws inside and out before you carry weapons, especially guns. If the defender in this video had panicked and pulled out a gun, he could have laid waste to a number of U.S. Marines and spent the rest of his life in jail (or worse).
3. Traditional martial arts like karate are designed for life protection, not for street justice. Withholding the hand unless there are no other options is key to karate’s practice and study. This, in fact, is another reason why traditional arts are so valuable in modern society – life protection coincides with IMOP (Intent, Means, Opportunity, and Preclusion). If a person is following the old ways, they will understand the deadliness of their practice and the value of withholding it unless absolutely necessary. Martial artists should watch this video and imagine themselves protecting the life of the young marine by not engaging in combat with him.
. My understanding of traffic law and self defense law comes from time in the Douglas County Sheriff CSV Academy and Patrol. I am not a legal expert and readers should take time to learn the traffic and self defense laws in their state.
Photos Courtesy of the following websites: Fender Bender By Eddie Maloney from North Las Vegas, USA (FENDER BENDER) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons, Three Car Accident By David King from Haifa, Israel (Three Car Accident – Kikar HaSefer) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons, Broken Window By Myke2020 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
There are a lot of analogies about martial arts training. Once you fall in love with an art, it tends to stay on the periphery of your mind, resulting in perceived connections with whatever you have going on throughout your day. One of my favorite karate similes is from Funakoshi Gichin Sensei, which goes something like this:
“Karate is like boiling water: without heat, it returns to it’s tepid state.”
Funakoshi Sensei was a great philosopher, and his observations ring as true today as when they were written. Anyone who has taken a break from their martial training knows just how accurate Funakoshi is – and “tepid” is a great word to describe the decay of skill that can occur rapidly.
Thanks to men like Funakoshi, I am occasionally inspired to think in non-literal ways about training. I wonder…what else in life reflects the simple, yet complex undertaking of martial arts? It was that lingering question that cropped into my mind when I was building a fire just the other day.
I recently moved to a new home in Pennsylvania, back from my mountainous excursions in Colorado. This home, unlike my previous dwellings, has wood burning fireplaces. I’ve started fires before in my life, as most kids do at one point or another, but I never really learned how to burn for longevity and heat value. I realized early on that there would be some trial and error in the development of my burning skills.
The Elements of a Good Fire
Starting Small with Incremental Steps
If you stack a bunch of logs in the fireplace and toss a match in, there is a very good chance you’ll be disappointed with the results. Even if the logs are very dry, there is just too much wood density there. To start a fire reliably, you have to begin by lighting small pieces of paper or tinder. That initial burst of fire will go out quickly though, so you have to make sure it interacts with slightly bigger pieces of kindling. Once you have the kindling burning you can begin to integrate larger logs. Skipping any of these steps, or taking on too much too soon, can result in failure.
Providing Maintained Exposure
Firestarter logs have become popular because they provide an extended amount of heat exposure at the beginning of the fire building cycle. This is valuable because to start larger pieces it requires a consistent flame over an extended period of time in order to dry, heat, and ignite. Without consistent, maintained exposure, a significant fire cannot be built…even if the initial flame is bright and hot.
Developing A Burning Core
Most people think of ash as the residue left over from a fire, but actually the ash core plays an important role in the burning process. As logs burn and turn into embers, they sink into the core and create an intense, lasting heat. It’s that core that helps provide significant heat to the home-at-large and also allows future logs to burn more readily. With a good core, a fire can be built, rebuilt, and maintained over a lengthy period of time.
Replacing Logs at the Right Time
I made the mistake early on of waiting until one set of logs was almost completely burnt out before adding the next set. I figured I was getting the most life span out of each, but in fact, I was missing my chance for a clean transfer of heat and energy from one to the next. Although it’s proper to let one set of logs achieve maximum heat and even start to turn to ember before adding the next, you still want to add the next set of logs while the first set is burning hot.
I’m always surprised at how a fire can spring back to life with a little help. I’ve had fires that seemed almost completely out except for a few glowing pieces in the logs and core. With some light poking (and occasionally persistent poking), even those fading fires have sprung back to life with fresh oxygen and energy.
Building Your Martial Fire
I bet your catching on to what I’m doing here, but let me explain. In the martial arts, if we place too much on a student too soon, or they try to take on too much right away, it’s very possible their enthusiasm for training will fizzle before it has a chance to truly grow. Instead, if we give them a small taste, allow it to spark their interest, and feed them more and more as time goes on it is more likely that their interest and commitment will grow.
In both your personal training and the training of your students, constant and careful exposure will be the secret to long-term success. Even though it might feel satisfying to train 12 hours a day for a month, the real value comes in training a responsible amount over long periods of time. It is with that maintained exposure that a person develops a true core of understanding and passion for the art. With a well developed core, the martial arts will fuel and guide a person in all aspects, even when they aren’t in the dojo.
Part of being a strong leader in the dojo or in a martial arts organization is understanding how to manage and empower your students and constituents. If students have access to their teachers while the teachers are still in their prime, the benefit of being exposed to the high level of execution will stick with them and benefit them throughout their training. Furthermore, as the senior echelon ages, the younger generation will be better prepared to take on the duties of their elders. If the ranking seniors wait too long to invest properly in the next generation…it may be too late.
There comes a time in most martial artists lives when they are sidelined by injury, work, lack of enthusiasm, or a myriad of other distractions. Despite that, most still have the passion for the arts somewhere deep inside of them. A small amount of inspiration, of poking and prodding, from the right source can bring that old flame back to life. You can be that inspiration, or, if you need it, you can seek that inspiration from someone who might be able light your fire.
What Do You See?
Contemplating the connection between building a fire and cultivating a strong martial spirit is an interesting exercise. What connections between the two do you see that I haven’t mentioned here?
This is a continuation of the interview with Katherine Loukopoulos Sensei. In Part 1, Loukopoulos Sensei discussed some of her earliest martial arts experiences and some of the challenges she faced as a woman in a predominantly male environment. In part 2, Loukopoulos Sensei dives more into her experience in Okinawa, motivations for traveling and teaching, and what she hopes her martial arts organization will accomplish.
Q: Loukopoulos Sensei, did you have a formal invitation to train with Nagamine Sensei from one of your previous instructors or did you just show up and hope for the best?
I did not have a Letter of Recommendation; I just showed up and hoped for the best!
Q: What were your early impressions of Okinawa and its people?
My early impressions are the same as today. Okinawans are a gentle, kind, and smiling type of people. On the surface all is calm and gentle. Underneath the surface, it is an intricate cultural system where everyone struggles to achieve without being perceived as hurting others. All are in the service of the greater good. Within those parameters, a foreigner can easily make mistakes beyond repair. Worse yet, the foreigner would never know it.
Q: How was training with Nagamine Sensei similar or different than your training experiences in the USA?
The training in Nagamine Sensei’s Hombu Dojo was exactly, to the letter, the same as in the Heshiki Sensei’s Dojo. Or, better said, Heshiki Sensei’s training was an exact copy of the Hombu Dojo. Warm-ups, moving and stationary basics, kata, general strength and fitness were in the same order. What was different was that Heshiki Sensei had huge number of repetitions. For example: If we did 60 squat punches in the Hombu Dojo, we executed 1000 in the Heshiki Dojo.
In both Hombu and Heshiki Sensei’s dojo we sat zazen.
Q: Did you continue experiencing the Zen influence of the style while training in Nagamine Sensei’s dojo?
Yes, we had zazen before every morning class, and zazen at the end of the last class of the day. Both the morning and the night zazen training were led by Nagamine Sensei. In the very rare occasions when Nagamine Sensei was not there, the training would be led by the next-in-line senior instructor.
Q: How long did you stay on Okinawa and did you participate in demonstrations or competitions while there?
I stayed on Okinawa from August 1985 to December 2000. In that period, I participated in most cultural and martial arts events. I competed in government and privately sanctioned martial arts events, and also, participated and competed on US Military installations.
Q: When did you begin serious international travel to spread the art of Matsubayashi Ryu? What motivated you to travel far and wide to countries like Russia, Austria, Sweden, and back to Greece?
I was traveling and teaching during the same years I was on the US Team. In fact, I had two students on the US Team also. Faith Barbera was in Kumite Lightweight Category, and Tammy Harwood was in the Middleweight Category. During those years I traveled and taught extensively in the US and in Caribbean countries.
When I lived on Okinawa, there was a continuous flow of karateka from abroad. My name was given to people who wanted to visit Okinawa, and were told that I would be the person that could help them get into a dojo. I served as a bridge for a huge amount of karateka. Many of those who knew me from my competition days on the National Team saw me on Okinawa performing, demonstrating, teaching, and connecting people to various dojo . . . and so, the invitations to their countries began.
Q: What do you think makes Matsubayashi Ryu a special and complete art? Is there anything in particular you love about it?
I don’t know if we can consider any given art as COMPLETE. We strive to achieve perfection as best we can, knowing we can never reach that pinnacle.
Matsubayashi Ryu is pretty. Another person, from Kobayashi Ryu will say that Kobayashi Ryu is pretty. I was born in Greece, and I believe that Greece is one of the prettiest places on the planet. The same will be said by a person born in Mongolia, and so on.
Matsubayashi Ryu shares similar elements with other Okinawa styles, so I would not call it special or complete. I would say that I feel I made a very good choice. If we consider something as COMPLETE, and we have learned all of its content, then we become satisfied and stop researching further . . . thus, there would be no, or very little future growth.
Q: What are your goals with the Bubishi Karate Do Organization, Inc.? How do you hope it helps the karate world?
The Bubishi Karate Do Organization is a not-for-profit organization registered with the State of New York. Since I am not in the United States at this time, it is only in name. I do not charge membership fees. I only charge teaching fees. There are no contracts and no agreements. Simply the students learn, and are awarded their ranks without charge. They are free to learn as they like, and from other persons as well. There are no restrictions, except that the techniques must be acquired to the best of their abilities as were dictated by Okinawa.
I originally had my HQ in Brooklyn, NY. Besides the martial arts programs, we had a painting class once a week, monthly field trips, weekly outdoor trainings, dances, and an after school care program where students were assisted with their homework. A hot organic meal was served daily.
All of our instructors came through the ranks. They were paid well, but had to maintain a B+ school average if they were still in school. Self-esteem grew large in this ghetto dojo. Students excelled, and many went on to college with full scholarships.
In Greece I do not have a dojo. The Greek government controls all sports, and therefore controls the Amateur Karate governing body. Okinawa karate styles are not recognized, and therefore, they are not sanctioned. So, I teach privately, in my home, in other people’s homes, rooftops, beaches, parks, mountain sides, etc., and I do get the job done. Last month, December, we had our first Shodan in Ryu Kyu Kobudo. I consider it a milestone since I am operating under the radar.
Q: What qualities did you see in Okinawan and Japanese dojo(s) that you think the Greek, USA, and European dojo(s) would benefit from emulating?
What one sees in the Japanese/Okinawa dojo is a representation of the Japanese/Okinawa culture. Westerners copy the dojo etiquette thinking that this is the dojo etiquette. No, it is not just dojo etiquette; it is a general etiquette. In fact, universities and public school dojo are stricter than the neighborhood dojo. Respect for the teachers, sempai and kohai is the same in the public schools and neighborhood dojo.
So, unless the western person actually learns and feels respect, he will not really know the feeling of respect in the dojo. It is simply “acting.”
Q:You have a number of books on the horizon – could you tell us what kinds of books you have prepared and what people might learn from them?
Hundreds if not thousands of books have been written on almost every aspect of the martial arts. Each book is unique and has something to offer; therefore, I am not going to devote too much space on techniques, but on the teachers themselves. I lived with them in and out of the dojo. I stayed on Okinawa until, one by one, they passed away. I kept daily journals, and although I could not write everything, I will try to present the readers with a journey through my eyes.
Q: Do you still travel to teach seminars? Where can people contact you if they want to discuss that possibility?